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F. M. (ft3/min), H in feet. N s for centrifugal impellers varies from 140 to 3000, N s for axial machines varies from 4000 to 8000. 3 Hydraulic Turbines: For turbines, it's more convenient to use power instead of Q. e. P. ….... , H in (feet) in English system or in (m) in French. For radial and mixed flow runners, N s varies from 10 to 100 in English system and 40 to 400 in French system. For axial flow turbines, N s varies from about 80 to 200 in English system and from 300 to 800 in French system.

2 Forces on cascade Consider a row of a cascade, the fluid reaches the cascade front with a velocity C1 , pressure P1 , and leaves with a velocity C 2 , pressure P2 . Assume the flow is steady which is only true in the case of an isolated row of cascade. Also assume incompressible flow. The flow in turbomachines is usually incompressible; the effect of Mach number will be considered where compressibility becomes important. 49 Applying the principles of continuity on the control volume of a unit blade depth, yields: C1 .

19 rpm 1 . 633 rpm 51 . ((m3/s)1/2m-3/4) in the French system but it is common practice to omit the units in brackets Fig. 6 Approximate relative impeller shapes and good average efficiencies obtained for commercial pump as a function of specific speed, Q N Ns = where N in (rpm), Q in (m3/h) and H in (m) 3/ 4 60 H Fig. P. M. P. P . 3 and reaches 1 for some axial impellers. ….... 14) Q in C. F. M. (ft3/min), H in feet. N s for centrifugal impellers varies from 140 to 3000, N s for axial machines varies from 4000 to 8000.

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Hydraulic Machines Textbook by Zagazig University

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