By C. Huang
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Additional info for Advanced Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery
1997). , 2005b). , 2010b). While circulating levels of TGF1 do not appear to be elevated in obesity, one caveat is that what is measured is actually the latent form of TGF1. , 1993). I conclude that TGF1 is formed by the nonfat cells in human adipose tissue and acts as a local paracrine/autocrine factor that is required for the development of obesity and insulin resistance. However, this does not necessarily mean that it plays a causal role since it is a multifunctional regulator of cellular metabolism.
20 Lipoprotein lipase [LPL] This multi-functional enzyme is the rate-limiting enzyme for the hydrolysis of circulating lipids containing triglycerides (Wang and Eckel, 2009). LPL was shown by Rodbell (1964) to be preferentially released by fat cells rather than the non-fat cells of rat adipose tissue. Similar results are seen in human omental adipose tissue and the total release of LPL by adipose tissue correlated with BMI (Fain, 2010). , 2009). , 2009). Fain (2010) also found a positive correlation between BMI and the release of LPL by explants of human omental fat incubated in vitro.
It is not found in fat cells of human visceral omental adipose tissue but is found in the nonfat cells (Fain, 2010). , 2011). , 2011). I conclude that vaspin is probably not an adipokine but rather a member of the serpin protease family with unknown functions whose circulating levels are not appreciably altered in obesity. , 2005). However, this protein turned out to be identical to PBEF [pre-Bcolony-enhancing factor] and Nampt [nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase]. , 2005; Fain, 2010). , 2007).
Advanced Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery by C. Huang